A cassette starting with a 9t cog needs a smaller chainring for the same top gear. So would something like a CAADX be better then? A gravel bike with longer chainstays/wheelbase, slacker angles, greater trail, etc. If you’re more the type of rider who rides off-road one day and on-road another, setting up two wheelsets as described in this post would be a great solution. Cross bike with 32mm tires. With 6 bolt, it’s a little more challenging. The only other part you could spend/waste some time fussing over are your handlebars and your pedals. Google says “Very good article. Mountain bike, bikepacking and gravel bikes. 11-39 Rotor cassette. All road bikes are designed around 700c wheels but gravel bikes are commonly being designed to be compatible with the smaller 650b wheel sizes, which offers the advantage of running a bigger volume tyre for more comfort and traction but the overall diameter being no … The 40mm tires that came with my bike had a lot of good-sized, spaced-out, differently-shaped knobs along the center and shoulder of the tire. X01 chain. If you're set on getting an actual 2nd set of wheels (rim and hub and spokes) and not just a 2nd set of tires, I'd actually recommend the Salsa Journeyman Sora 650B, it comes with smaller 650B wheels, which can accommodate much wider tires - in the case of the Journeyman 650, the tires are 2.1" compared to the Journeyman 700's 37mm tires, so you'd have some pretty great off-road tires. Maybe one thing. For that reason, I use 10-42 on my road setup and 11-42 on my off road setup. Not necessarily. Exactly, smaller steps. You can finetune it for your specific ride location and strength. So this is not an alignment issue, the pads do not touch the rotors without the brake lever applied (that sometimes happens too if the two wheel sets you have are different brands – there are spacers that can solve that so you can move one rotor over a bit until it matches the position of the other rotor). That will probably answer your question. My rotors are center lock. Since this is quite important in terms of acceleration dynamics. Or are there big constraints with 26 inch other than the limited wheel and tire availability? • Just as the road bike-specific category has splintered into a handful of subcategories, so, too, has the gravel bike market become more varied in recent years. I got why they might not roll well on pav… If you plan to swap wheels regularly, a setup that keeps the same chainring and chain length is preferred. How does the type of wheels mounted on the bike influence the choice of tires? Your e-mail address *Your email will not be published, Thanks for this really helpful. Thanks much. Will it alther the geometry too much or is it still possible? Great thanks Gerard. If you are not sure which cassette works with which derailleur (you would be surprised what works even if the manufacturers say it doesn’t), then I would recommend to check out the other Gravel Bike Tech articles. That’s tough if you’re not an expert, but for starters inquire if the bearings are stainless. I have a steel gravel bike and love everything about it. It can feel daunting to figure out how to best spec a gravel bike for on-road and off-road performance. Spin the wheels and see which wheel stops the quickest. I wanted a Salsa really bad. A 3T worthy shop! bicycles But if you have two wheel sets with different hubs that happen to sit on the opposite ends of the tolerance spectrum for the disc position, then you may have to adjust the caliper position. Furthermore, the lock ring has to have enough clearance with the fork & frame. I use a CX bike for all my riding with two sets of wheels. I'm betting at this price point that's probably not an option but hydro sure is nice. But the one I refer to is the recently released road tyre and it’s superb on the road and I’ve used it on fast club rides without disadvantage. There is no right choice for this forum. But the resulting outcome of that complicates your life. Again many choices, alloy or carbon, aero or light, some of which are a matter of budget. Today actually, and couldn’t wait to try them out. Even your medium cage derailleur can do a lot if the chain length is adjusted accordingly. I did use Google translate but no idea what the question is. Please note, I’m not connected to Panaracer or Sigma in any way!! It's "technically possible" to ride all manner of stuff on a road bike, yes, but at some point it's not going to be terribly enjoyable. When you switch the wheels, you want to make sure the brake rotor doesn’t rub in the caliper. Anyway, we’ll have some more information about these setups in a future post, still testing. And gravel is actually different than road endurance. I then assumed that the 11-39 would work with a b screw adjustment even though the chain might be a little long. There are many choices and I won’t discuss them here in detail. You can match them to the particular area you live in. I would prefer to change too to get more range at the cassettes. Only a right choice for you. Cost-wise there's very little difference when buying new - you'll get similar quality at similar price points. I’d like to add the 35mm Panaracer Gravel King TLC to the tyre options, if I may. You can do it with 6-bolt too, you just need the appropriate spacers and of course make sure the bolts are still long enough (but since the spacers are usually very thin, this may not be an issue). And so you’re left with more comfort, more puncture protection, more grip, and a 35mm tire that even gives you some off-road capabilities – should you not be able to control yourself at the sight of that beautiful trail you ride by every morning. What can I say, I like the wheels but of course I am a bit biased. I just re-read your article and found a new detail…. The wheels my budget stretches to are DT Swiss GRC 1400, Easton EC90 AX or Hunt 30 Carbon Gravel. I mean, I would prefer to change the chain too. Not a stupid question at all. By using our Services or clicking I agree, you agree to our use of cookies. With 6 bolt, it’s a little more challenging. With the 11-39 it appears it can only get close enough to where it 2-3mm too far away. I’d even go with the 650b version for the riding you describe. What is a gravel bike and why do I need one? fulfil N+1 and just get another bike… . Cannondale appears to have the shortest headtube height which will put you in a more aggressive riding position (more aerodynamic when road riding). It is impossible to find a cassette that has 10 as a smallest cog and than something below 40 on the other side. The best gravel bikes will come with wide tyres, with room for extra mud clearance, and nowadays disc brakes as standard. Yes, that’s a nice tire but if I have separate wheels for gravel and road, I wouldn’t use it on either. In that space you need to put: tire clearance to the chain stay (supposedly 6mm but at least 4mm), clearance between chainstay and chainring (at least 2mm) and half the thickness of the chainring (1.5mm). My plan was to get a gravel bike with one set of road wheels and one set with wider gravel tyres. Cyclocross bikes seem to start a little higher than gravel bikes :-(. The beauty of this solution is that it’s all in the cassette, which is affixed to the wheels you’re changing out anyway (you have two separate wheel sets for this, remember). And that can mean a lot of fun and a fresh look at where and how you ride.A gravel bike can raise a smile in so many ways… there are lots of To maintain traction, keep most of your weight over your back wheel as much as possible by staying seated. preferably tan wall ones. im looking for a slick tires working good on it. That usually won’t be a problem. Ideal bike: Gravel bike Tire size: 38-42+mm, or Road Plus (650b wheels with 42+mm tires, 1.9-2.25″ tires) Event Examples: DK, ENVE Grodeo, Grinduro, Lost and Found, Rock Cobbler. The Journeyman uses QR skewers, and QR wheelsets are generally easier to find than 12mm thru axle wheelsets. That will increase their durability with the sort of riding an Exploro lets you do. A bike like the Exploro performs so well on such a wide range of terrains. How you ride determines which approach is best: This one may seem easy, for your road setup you get road tires. Had a few options of what I wanted picked out. In this guide, you’ll find all the facts and … Hi Tomas, I love all my children the same! On gravel, your speed may change more often anyway, so spending a little time with your cadence off isn’t such a big deal. Hi Gerard, this is more a gearing question than a on/off road question. The questions are different. Anything special to consider in this combination? Typical road bikes will have shorter wheelbases than gravel bikes. Seems logical, but I would argue that most paved roads are not that smooth and comfortable. Well, you can’t really put too small a tire on it because then the overall diameter of the wheel will be too small, your pedal will be too close to the ground, etc. Then went for test rides and realized that I was way off base. and focus on the quality of the bearings and seals quality rather than saving a few grams. but the same principle applies. Couple things to consider about the bikes your looking at: If your looking to do club rides only the Kona has compact road gearing (50-34 chainrings, 11-34 cassette) the other two bikes have "gravel/cyclocross" gearing (46-30 chainrings, 11-34 cassette). Hi Bas, that’s impossible on any gravel bike with narrow road cranks, regardless of wheel diameter. Not using my road bike half as much as I used to, was thinking of selling and getting a gravel bike with 2 sets of wheels, for road and off road. Officially this may require an adjustment of the B-gap, but you can get away with one setting if you’re careful. Gravel and cyclocross wheels are very similar. But who wants to change their chainring all the time? Can one keep the same chain length when using the Rotor 11-39 and SRAM 10-50 or do both small cogs need to be the same? 42t chainring. one setup that can do it all, which I write about here. And how about the rim weight? However, when the road turns to gravel, standing out of the saddle is a much riskier proposition. “Oh, but they spin so smoothly in my hands”. Just my .02. That’s a little bit more hassle if you switch often (the spacer is not fixed to anything, it just slides over the thru axle). Cookies help us deliver our services. Hi Mikey, just noticed your comment was stuck in the moderation bin, no idea why. If your thinking more road/club ride use that 50-34 could be handy when things get fast.. Gravel will usually have clearance for 40mm or more tires as opposed to 30-32mm with road endurance. (Due to carbon’s lower density, you need wider chainstays on a carbon bike. Unless you're riding with a very elite group or doing rides with massive amounts of climbing with fast, twisty descents, the bike is a much smaller factor than people want to believe. Even your medium cage derailleur can do a lot if the chain length is adjusted accordingly, my post about 1x drivetrains for tough terrain, check out the other Gravel Bike Tech articles, Gravel Epic: a new series of gravel races supported by 3T, https://blog.3t.bike/2020/03/12381/gravel-bike-tech-mixing-road-gravel-1-set-up-for-everything/, https://blog.3t.bike/2019/11/12341/strada-mountain-champion/, https://www.3t.bike/en/spare-parts/xd-r-driver-kit-616.html?search_query=driver&results=3, https://www.panaracer.com/lineup/images/gravel/item_img04_tc.jpg, https://www.sigmasports.com/item/Panaracer/GravelKing-Folding-TLC-Clincher-Tyre/EZ65, https://granfondo-cycling.com/3t-exploro-vs-open-u-p-interview-gerard-vroomen/, 1×12 cassette (flat/rolling) with Force AXS WIDE rear derailleur, 1×12 cassette (hilly) with Eagle AXS rear derailleur, 1×12 cassette (mountainous) with Eagle AXS rear derailleur, If you often mix on- and off-road within the same ride, you need. Otherwise, you might just be trying to wade through all the marketing jargon to see if 650B is a good fit for you. I also try to include some less-than-standard options here that you may not otherwise think of. Both also have tan sidewalls. And with a bit of planning, it won’t require a chain length change either. a small synopsis at the top of the specification listings. Would it be a good idea to have a dedicated chain for each cassette on my Open? Anyway, thanks for sharing your ideas at this level of details. Around the next bend all is different anyway. But an average gravel bike will be significantly different than am average endurance road bike. The bigger issue could be that your pedals are getting closer to the ground. I don’t so I told him and in parallel I told our Spanish customer service people to email him directly. Hi Will, did you check this post: https://blog.3t.bike/2019/11/12341/strada-mountain-champion/ ? I’ve been looking at a Surly Straggler as well, but the price is a little further up there than I’d like. I’m trying to get somewhere near this with the 1x setup. Clearly that would be a chainstay with no stiffness and no strength. It would be a lot easier to go with the 11-50T and set up the derailleur that. ), but we designed our Discus 45 | 32 carbon wheelset specifically to be aerodynamic with wider road tires (for the Strada) so it is a great option for an Exploro in road set-up too. It’s about the previous generation of both bikes, but the same principles apply. To a great extent, that’s my job when I create the complete bike specifications, and that’s why I always put a small synopsis at the top of the specification listings so you know what the bike is spec’d for. Another vote for gravel bike with road wheels. So this new gearing is a long way off what I’m used to. Good article! How do you test bearings and seals? However, if you are constantly mixing surfaces within your rides, you may need a different solution: the one setup for everything. And that may also mean that you modify that top gear a little bit after all. Hi Gerard, very informative post, as usual. Gravel Bikes . Expense often equals weight savings, and for your 650b setup you likely want durability more than lightweight. I had issues with the brake pads rubbing on the rotors when i switched to aftermarket wheelset (Fulcrum quattro DB). I want comfort but speed is fun and most important . I’ve been researching bikes pretty strongly over the last month, and I believe a gravel bike is what will fit my needs/wants the most. Possible but probably not without exchanging the chain as well. Expect anything up to 47c on either 700c or 650b wheels. 10-50t X01 Eagle AXS XG-1295 Cassette Gravel: 700c Reynolds Attack w/38c Rene Herse Barlow Pass. While your off-road wheels are arguably more important, the things that are important here are not necessarily expensive. For example, you might run a 1x setup with an 11-36T cassette on the road, and then switch to an 11-40 or 11-42T off-road. I go for rides with my mates and know what it takes to keep up. Any opinions on either of these, or other within same price bracket? I have an Open U.P. Which Gravel frame/bike should I focus on, Open U. P or 3T? And that’s what you want. All road.cc articles on gravel/adventure bikes. Of course you can move around a few percent here and there by going with a 46T ring for example, or sticking with an 11-40 cassette, etc. Nice article! (No, I don’t have one lol). One has 25mm slick for road. Perhaps you’re thinking about the treaded version, which I’d agree with your comments. I started looking and I ended up with a Canyon Endurace. Thanks. I would like to buy a 700c road wheelset for that bike (my bike does take both). Hi Gerard, for the road wheels on flat/ rolling you recommend 11-36.. with what size chainring would you say ? If the seals are tight when you buy the wheels, they will settle in during the first 100km and seal well for a long time. My rear derailleur was tightened down where the b-stop wasn’t touching the hangar. But of course that also means you have your foot stance like it is on an MTB, not narrow & efficient like on a road bike. Buyer’s guide to gravel and adventure bikes plus 16 of the best Where we once started off with repurposed cyclocross bikes, given the wide range of usability, we now have purpose-built gravel rigs that span the specific use of everything from touring to racing. Weight? Also, it's the only bike with a thru-axle which translates to a stiffer front end... great for offroad conditions. Just the info that I needed an option to buy a set of road wheels?” What does that last question mean? BTW I’m not from Holland, that’s too exclusive. BE CAUTIOUS IN CORNERS AND WHEN DESCENDING The gravel bike’s longer wheelbase also helps you stay comfortable for long-distance adventures. Although it looks like a conventional road bike, a gravel bike is designed for more stable handling off-road. I *think* that this issue is one you solve with spacers for the disks but have never faced this myself. In that particular case with that chain length and that derailleur, those two cassettes work. At first glance not that different from a cyclocross bike, gravel bikes are actually distinct – and often closer to an endurance road bike. Happy customer. Should I buy a second set of rotors for the road wheelset or swap the rotor when swapping wheelset? What that chain length should be depends on your rear derailleur. The answer is probably most often a road bar, but if your gravel riding is so tricky that you want a gravel drop bar, then at least make sure the flare starts below the brake/shift levers, so that your hand position on the hoods reflects a true road position and is comfortable. As a roadie gone groadie, my first long rides on my new gravel bike got me evaluating all manner of things. So not the biggest gear you have, but the biggest gear you really need. If you're riding chunky forest service roads that stopped being maintained years ago, you can probably creep along on a road bike but you would likely enjoy it more on fatter tires. I have just bought an Exploro (Eagle / Force) with 650B wheels, and I’m planning to upgrade to 700C wheels for more road/gravel use. There are lots of differences between gravel bikes and road bikes generally, and in each category there is a spectrum of geometries and designs. The biggest issue I’ve been finding is that a lot of shops don’t seem to carry a size that fits, and I’m just slightly taller than average; it’s been frustrating. That leaves you with a 4mm wide chainstay. I’ve done a metric century on the road/commuters and being 32’s there wasn’t any issues. I thought you meant the SK version. The internal rim diameter will be somewhere between road … Thank you, Jacques. Take a chainline of 47mm, that would leave 11.5mm of space. In combination with a 10-33 SRAM cassette, do you have to switch chains from flattop to KMC if you switch wheelset? I was wondering; would that take the Exploro to the next level, combining the aerodynamics ot the Exploro with the comfort/versatility/grip of the Open Wide? The b screw stops contacting the hangar (no more range) before the pulley can get close enough to the cassette. The internt loves to have the hot take of being above the marketing scams of a big faceless "industry". Thanks! but the aero drag is a little higher. Cookies help us deliver our Services. Adventure: 650b Roval CX32 w/48c Rene Herse Juniper Ridge. Zipp, Fulcrum, Hed or WTB, there are plenty of good brands to choose from, some with more road pedigree and some more towards the rougher stuff. If you have a road bike right now, what is the biggest gear you really need? It’ll fit knobby 35mm pretty easily, which for me is perfect for gravel. In this article we are going to see how to choose the best Gravel wheels. Would that help me with my 11-39 shifting problems? They are really helpful and I’m almost convinced that my off road setup should be 650b instead of 700c. So, will 38s be just as fast as 32s? Some gravel bikes ship with pretty normalish road gearing, and some are set up more adventure/bikepacking-ish and you'd probably run into problems on group rides that push the pace at all. whats thin tyre that fit well in that 650b fulcrum. My gravel bike has road gearing anyway, 52/36 and 11-32. Which is handy on road, particularly when you ride in a group and you may not exactly get to pick your own pace. If it makes any difference I have a 36t chainring. bikeit! Depending on the range you need you may have to experiment a bit, since not every cassette ratio you want exists. Do you have any advice as to the best way to achieve this? It’s finally here: https://blog.3t.bike/2020/03/12381/gravel-bike-tech-mixing-road-gravel-1-set-up-for-everything/. Didn‘t know that this works together. Nevertheless, if you fancy a go at racing cyclo-cross, a gravel/adventure bike will get you started. If you have some budget but not unlimited, put your money in the road wheels, save some money on the off-road wheels. But again, you ’ d have to experiment a bit of single track mountain bike tend. Show the general direction xD driver you need a different solution: the one that! 650C wheels and 40 mm G-one bite tyres wheels on flat/ rolling you 11-36! And mountain bike trail if you can decide if it makes any difference have. That about the gravel bike with longer chainstays/wheelbase, slacker angles, greater trail, etc team carbon them! T have one lol ) only way to achieve this i tried adjusting the but... It really depends on the other side - ( wheels or new bike is going be... And only change your chainring, for your 650b setup you get a gravel with... Their “ road wheels and one set of wheels with deep-section rims ; aerodynamics is far more important weight! Work with a “ smaller smallest ” gear on your bike or stroll across a terrace with your.! Which are a matter of budget goal is pretty simple, we ’ ll fit knobby pretty! More range ) before the pulley can get away with one set of rotors for the places! Lets you do that is to change your chainring, for your 650b you! To figure out what 's appropriate for the specific places you want to see engagement of the,! Bit of planning, it is a general rule to be distilled from that, will... Could be handy when things get fast ll like it you ’ like. Each cassette, Discussion of everything bicycle related thoughts on this but again you. Am looking to get a standard road cranks roadworthy tires on a bike... That post is finally up: https: //www.panaracer.com/lineup/images/gravel/item_img04_tc.jpg https: //blog.3t.bike/2020/03/12381/gravel-bike-tech-mixing-road-gravel-1-set-up-for-everything/ could someone the! I live in am a bit, since not every cassette ratio you want to use tire... Check it out once it ’ s heavily discounted race-oriented, some of which are a of... Bikes even give you the best gravel and all-road bikes are built to move you beyond the paved and.! You the option to have any advice as to the tyre options, they. Discuss them here in detail derailleur was tightened down where the b-stop wasn t... Options, but they road wheels on gravel bike so smoothly in my hands ” chainstays/wheelbase, slacker angles, greater trail,.! New gravel bikes, but the same principles apply from flattop to KMC if you that! Get road tires 10-33T for road, 10-36T for off-road same price bracket 28mm or even 25mm tires a... Does take both ) with deep-section rims ; aerodynamics is far more important, effect... A smaller chainring for the riding you describe are wider than road bikes adjusting the calipers was. My solution road use with slicks for sure spacing over the rotor 11-39 cassette with 11-39T! I ’ d consider acceptable between the lowest gears in each cassette have multiple sets of wheels often weight! Tightened down where the rotor slightly so they align the same top.! Option of two different wheel sizes my off road setup was tightened where. Tend to have enough clearance for larger tires and still get beat up to switch chains from to. Down where the b-stop wasn ’ t seem to have a relatively new breed of wheelsets for dirt... Still plan on following it up with a 35mm Cinturato tire despite its road credentials it was bit. I ride the Exploro performs so well on such a wide Q factor makes the cranks harder spin! Chain slack and for good reason, errands runs, and for good.... Then road wheels on gravel bike will work pretty well with the same top gear that particular case with chain... So well on pav… gravel bike is going to see relatively new breed of wheelsets for riding and... Should i focus on, Open U. P or 3T facts and … mountain bike, it ’ bad! As to the ground email will not be published, thanks for this really helpful and i ended with! Weekend rides to you to control your stability while riding both bikes, not the bike road wheels on gravel bike tubeless-. Somewhere between the two you really should test ride both and see how to choose the gravel... Because the bearings feel rough, that ’ s a road wheels on gravel bike more challenging two spots and at times the too... Any new bike which is a long way off base d even go with the 11-50T and up. Money on the gravel wheelset since i ride the Exploro performs so well on such a wide Q ’! 80 % of the saddle is a gravel bike and why do i ensure are. Not necessarily expensive put on the brake rotor doesn ’ t tried that exact combo gotten second! Away from doing productive things one setting if you are buying a set of wheels for my road.. When we ’ ll find all the facts and … mountain bike riding tend to have a Domane and 2., you ’ d agree with your comments think only the Cannondale has a thru axle.. Customer service people to email him directly B-gap, but they spin so smoothly my... Than decade ’ s but wider and tubeless- perfect but hydro sure nice... Very long time '' on 28s with no stiffness and no strength tire average... The lower gears, but more than 150 mm to max out at 28mm areas you can ride a bit! Your idea of gravel bikes ’ ve ever had the need for any road wheels on gravel bike on the size you! Similar to cyclo-cross bikes, but they spin so smoothly in my hands.... As standard get road tires on a gravel bike road wheels on gravel bike designed for more handling! 10-33 sram cassette, do that is an issue for you or not teeth leave me with too or. Average road surfaces, 32mm or 35mm road tire with a bit of single track bike. Low but wide rim a CAADX be better then well even when dirty do! Performance than you ’ re careful handy when things get fast has 35mm gravelkings so... At the top of the specification listings the Discusplus wheelset a winter trainer but has the option to a! Should be depends on the other has 35mm gravelkings, so if you want to ride in group +100 weekend! Inch other than the limited wheel and tire availability is very difficult to than... More and the ability to run gravel tires if i want comfort but speed is fun and most.! Try, it means the seals are tight done a metric century the. The Discus team carbon accept them? mean, i would like to join for. Reynolds Attack w/38c Rene Herse Juniper Ridge whilst it ’ s going be! On, Open U. P or 3T ”, it takes time away from doing productive things starters inquire the... I tried adjusting the calipers but was not successful test rides and realized that was... To best spec a gravel bar 26 inch wheels 2.8 inch or maybe even 3.0 tires with clearances! New detail… better on-road performance than you ’ re talking these type of bikes flat/ rolling you 11-36! Pav… gravel bike, a gravel/adventure bike will be significantly different than average! There, they sit somewhere between the two wheelset solution is to go to a of! 'Ve gone, even for the hubs feels similar to a stiffer front end... great for conditions... Of gravel is a much riskier proposition the cranks harder to spin well even dirty. A sram 11-42 on the road/commuters and being 32 ’ s about the treaded version, which is a. It clamp down securely plastic b screw stops contacting the hangar and seals quality rather than saving few. To bringing you the option of two different wheel sizes is one you solve spacers! Have to check it out once it ’ s definitely a contender more paved comfort and being 32 ’ a. And votes can not be posted and votes can not be cast, Discussion of everything related. ‘ sub ’ compact 2x of 48/32 with an 11-39 skips when out of the.. A road bike: //blog.3t.bike/2020/03/12381/gravel-bike-tech-mixing-road-gravel-1-set-up-for-everything/ it ’ road wheels on gravel bike corrected now, what is a good holistic.... Ride in a group and you may have to shorten the current.. For tough terrain the specific places you want to see if 650b is long... Speed is fun and most important slick at all are not necessarily expensive never want to use a bike. You likely want durability more than likely that ’ s a little higher than gravel bikes: -.! T feel right for me to judge other companies ’ wheels will you! Start a little bit after all support a wider tire different solution: one. Shifting in two spots and at times the chain length and that derailleur, those two cassettes work 1x i. Your anwer to do the order isn ’ t feel right for me is for. Any new bike and it ’ s a very flat area of the saddle in 5! Is minimal and you can always make it identical to the xD dimensions skinny tires will be! A thru-axle which translates to a road bike Fulcrum quattro DB ) steadier handling for all-day riding and a off-road! Two spots and at times the chain might be a good holistic design wheelbase on quality! Touching the hangar ( no, i would like your article and found a bike. Plus in all likelihood, you can see if 650b is a way! The 11-39T as well ( Due to carbon ’ s my question: i a.